162 FLORA 1NDTCA.
common all over India, even to the extreme south of the pe-
ninsula, in those provinces which have a similar climate. A
very few winter-flowering plants (such as Ranunculus scele-
ratw) are the only exceptions, and these ar6 mostly wanderers
from the temperate region of the Himalaya. We have already
had occasion to direct attention to the remarkable uniformity
of the vegetation over large areas of India, and as.our infor-
mation becomes more precise, the sameness becomes more
A considerable portion of the flora of the peninsula docs not
extend to the upper Gangctic plain, because of the increased
cold of winter, and even within the district several plants
which are common in the south-eastern portion do not extend
to the north-west. Trichodesina Ztylamaun is coinnion about
Patna, but not found in llohilkhund. Casaytha, which is com-
mon in Bahar, is found at Agra, but not dn the north of the
Ganges. The Palmyra (Borassus) is cultivated as far up the
Ganges as Alighar and Shahjehanpur, but is not known at
Mecrut or Moradabad. The only wild palm in the province
is Phoenix sylvestris.
Near the base of the Himalaya there is always a belt of
forest of considerable width; but as it is identical in vegeta-
tion with the tropical belt of the mountains, to which indeed
it owes its existence, it will be more convenient to notice it in
describing the Himalaya.
The vegetation of the xippcr Gangetic plain, which was first •
explored by Hardvricke, Govan, and \Vallieh, was afterwards
illustrated in detail by Dr. iloylc, whose long residence at
Saharunpur gave him ample opportunity of investigating it.
In his * Illustrations/ the influence of the climate upon the
vegetation, and the curious transition from the humid to the
dry country flora, are first pointed out. Our own collections
avo chiefly from Rohilkhand.
The lower part of the Gangctic plain, which constitutes the